Year of Publication:2016
Using two nationally-representative datasets, this study compares early life experiences of kindergarteners in 1998 and 2010. We find that over this period, many forms of parental investments increased substantially including educational resources in the home and children’s involvement in enriching activities. Although these increases occurred among both low and high-income children, in many cases they were largest among the lowest-income children. Implications for early socioeconomic achievement gaps are discussed.