This paper focuses on linguistic minority (LM) students who come from households where a language other than English is spoken. In particular, it examines the amount and type of resources English learners (ELs)—those LM students who are not yet proficient in English—need in order to have the opportunity to meet the same achievement standards as other students. This report addresses the following specific questions:
- What are the demographic characteristics and academic performance outcomes of language minority and English learner students in California public schools?
- What conceptual framework is appropriate for analyzing the resource needs of linguistic minority students?
- What resources are needed to provide an adequate education for California English learners?
- How have past studies estimated the cost of these resource needs?
- What approach do the authors recommend for estimating the cost of educating English learners and linguistic minority students in California?