This study assesses a new measure of earlychildhoodclassroom practice in 127 kindergarten- and first-grade classrooms. The measure was designed to be appropriate for classrooms serving children from the age of 4–7 years. It assesses the nature and quality of instruction as well as the social climate and management of the classroom. Two separate scales assess the degree to which constructivist, child-centered and the degree to which didactic, teacher-centered instructional practices are implemented. Findings indicate that the measure produced reliable scores and meaningful, predictable associations were found between scores on the observationmeasure, on the one hand, and teachers’ self-reported practices, teaching goals, relationships with children, and perceptions of children's ability to be self-directed learners, on the other.