College students in the United States and in the People's Republic of China completed a set of questions related to the circumstances in which they would feel pride, shame, and guilt. Both Chinese and Americans claimed that they would feel more guilty and ashamed if they were caught cheating on an examination than if their brother were caught, with the intensity of guilt and shame less for Chinese than for Americans. Chinese claimed that they would feel more proud if their child were accepted to a prestigious university than if they were accepted themselves, whereas Americans claimed they would feel equally proud in these two circumstances. Americans had more positive attitudes toward expressing pride in personal accomplishments, and Chinese were more likely to claim that pride should only be experienced for outcomes that benefit others. The findings extend the notion of collectivism to include shared self-related emotions.
Differences between Americans and Chinese in the circumstances evoking pride, shame, and guilt
Year of Publication:1998
Publication:Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
(1998). Differences between Americans and Chinese in the circumstances evoking pride, shame, and guilt. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 29, 616-629.