Asked 72 male and 72 female 3–8 yr olds to make causal attributions for performance on a motor task, reward allocations for the performance outcome, and estimate future success. S made judgments for him- or herself and for another child after consistent failure, success, or improvement. Results indicate that Ss as young as 3 yrs were able to process past-performance information and make realistic performance-related judgments. They were more likely, however, to make logical, adultlike judgments for another child than for themselves. Ss tended to make more positive judgments for themselves than for another child, with one notable exception: The expectations of the 7–8 yr old females in the failure condition were slightly lower for themselves than for another female and much lower than the 7–8 yr old males' expectations for themselves.