Effectiveness of four instructional programs designed to serve English language learners: Variation by ethnicity and initial English proficiency
In this paper we investigate the relationship between four elementary school instructional programs designed to serve English learners (ELs) and students’ academic achievement trajectories in English language arts and math through middle school. We also consider differential program effectiveness by ethnicity and initial English proficiency. Although bilingual education has been well studied, little research has examined the effectiveness of programs longitudinally, most has focused on academic outcomes only in literacy, and most U.S.-based research has focused exclusively on Spanish-speaking ELs. We find considerable differences in effects between programs (i.e. transitional bilingual, developmental bilingual, dual immersion, and English immersion), between students of different ethnicities (i.e. Chinese and Latino), and across academic subjects.