Poverty and Inequality

Supporting Parenting through Differentiated and Personalized Text-Messaging: Testing Effects on Learning During Kindergarten

Recent studies have shown that texting-based interventions can produce educational benefits in children across a range of ages. These studies vary in their focus from broad curricula on child development, to reminders about missing work, to steps needed in order to enroll in college. Given the potential effectiveness of texting, as well as the ease of systematically varying texting programs so as to assess the effects of different approaches, texting provides a productive venue for learning about mechanisms behind program effects.

One Step at a Time: The Effects of an Early Literacy Text Messaging Program for Parents of Preschoolers

Substantial systematic differences exist in children’s home learning experiences. The few existing parenting programs that have shown promise often are not widely accessible, either due to the demands they place on parents’ time and effort or cost. In this study, we evaluate the effects of READY4K!, a text messaging program for parents of preschoolers designed to help them support their children’s literacy development.

Increased Learning or GPA Inflation? Evidence from GPA-Based University Admission in Chile

A student's ranking in the grade point average (GPA) distribution has emerged as an admission variable that increases admission rates of both segregated minorities and high-performance individuals. In 2012, Chile's centralized university admission system introduced a GPA ranking variable relative to the previous cohorts' average GPA. Such a system introduces academic incentives to exert effort, but also to inflate GPA. In this paper, we analyze the effects of that reform on the GPA distribution and achievement measures.

Helping parents help their children

Many young children grow up without supportive home learning environments. One often cited study found that by the age of four, poor children hear about 30 million fewer words than wealthy children. This fissure manifests in great differences in children’s motor, social, emotional, literacy, and numeracy skills when they first start kindergarten, gaps that persist through school and into the labor market.]

Implementing the Foundations of Learning Project: Considerations for Preschool Intervention Research

While studies have documented the importance of strong implementation in intervention studies (e.g., see Durlak & Dupre, 2008), more information is needed about how to ensure strong fidelity and quality of program implementation when delivering interventions under “real world conditions” and on a large scale. In this article, key lessons in implementing a demonstration and evaluation project known as the Foundations of Learning (FOL) demonstration are presented.

A Report Card: How Are Secondary Vocational Schools in China Measuring Up to Government Benchmarks?

As a result of increasing interest among policymakers, secondary vocational schooling has expanded steadily during the past two decades in China. This paper assesses whether China’s secondary vocational schooling is measuring up to government benchmarks for quality, whether poor students have access to quality secondary vocational schooling, and whether poor students have financial aid assistance to attend. These government benchmarks include the following: teacher qualification and training, student opportunities for practical training, and adequate facilities.

Considering Special Education Adequacy in California

Expenditures continue to rise for students with disabilities, making special education an increasingly important component of education funding. This study explores the issue of
special education adequacy through two questions:

  1. What analytical techniques exist for estimating the cost of an adequate education for special education students?
  2. How might these techniques be applied to estimate costs for special education students in California, and how do those estimates compare to current expenditures?

The Effect of Primary School Mergers on Academic Performance of Students in Rural China

We examine the impact of primary school mergers on academic performance of students using a dataset that we collected using a survey designed specifically to examine changes in the academic performance of students before and after their schools were merged. We use difference-in-differences and propensity score matching approaches and demonstrate that overall the primary school merger has not harmed the academic performance of students, as some have claimed.

Learning-related behaviors and literacy achievement in elementary school-aged children

This longitudinal study investigated associations between children's learning-relatedbehaviors and literacyachievement in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income children throughout elementaryschool. Children's literacy and learning-relatedbehavior (e.g., working independently, seeking challenges) were assessed when they were in kindergarten or first grade and again in the third and fifth grades. The results showed fair consistency over time in both learning-relatedbehaviors and literacy skills.

Teaching practices in kindergarten and first grade: Different strokes for different folks

This study assessed the nature of instruction in 314 kindergarten and first-grade classrooms from 155 schools in 48 school districts in three states. The schools served a relatively high proportion of low-income children and children of color. Despite the restricted range in student populations served, qualities of the schools and observed classroom instruction were associated with the demographics of the student body. Schools serving relatively high proportions of low-income children and children of color were rated by teachers to have more negative social climates.