English Language Learners

Effectiveness of four instructional programs designed to serve English language learners: Variation by ethnicity and initial English proficiency

This paper investigates the differences in academic achievement trajectories from elementary through middle school among English Learner students in four different instructional programs: English Immersion, Transitional Bilingual, Developmental Bilingual, and Dual Immersion programs. Comparing students with the same parental preferences but who attend different programs, we find that the ELA test scores of ELs in all bilingual programs grow at least as fast as, if not faster than those in English immersion.

Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms

Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to “Fluent English proficient” status as quickly as possible. This paper examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual, and dual immersion. Using hazard analysis and 12 years of data from a large school district, the paper investigates whether reclassification timing, patterns, or barriers differ by linguistic program.

Resource Needs for California’s English Learners

This paper focuses on linguistic minority (LM) students who come from households where a language other than English is spoken. In particular, it examines the amount and type of resources English learners (ELs)—those LM students who are not yet proficient in English—need in order to have the opportunity to meet the same achievement standards as other students. This report addresses the following specific questions:

Bridging research and practice to develop a two-way bilingual program

A two-way bilingual program was developed for children in preschool through second grade. Observation identified gaps between the program that was planned and the one implemented; data indicated few differences in academic gains between the bilingual program and the English-only classrooms. Findings pose implications for how teacher-researcher partnerships can improve educational programs.