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CEPA Directors

Susanna Loeb

Susanna Loeb Susanna Loeb is the Barnett Family Professor of Education at Stanford University, faculty director of the Center for Education Policy Analysis, and a co-director of Policy Analysis for California Education. She specializes in the economics of education and the relationship between schools and federal, state and local policies. Her research addresses teacher policy, looking specifically at how teachers' preferences affect the distribution of teaching quality across schools, how pre-service coursework requirements affect the quality of teacher candidates, and how reforms affect teachers' career decisions. She also studies school leadership and school finance, for example looking at how the structure of state finance systems affects the level and distribution of resources across schools. Susanna is a member of the National Board for Education Sciences, a senior fellow at the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, member of the Executive Board of the National Center for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research, and a faculty research fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Michelle Reininger

Michelle Reininger Michelle Reininger ( is an Assistant Professor (Research) and the Executive Director of the Center for Education Policy Analysis. She returns to Stanford, where she received a PhD in the economics of education and an MA in economics, from her position as an Assistant Professor of Human Development and Social Policy and Learning Sciences at Northwestern University and a Faculty Fellow at the Institute for Policy Research. At Northwestern, Reininger studied the dynamics of teacher and principal labor markets including preparation, recruitment, and retention. She is currently involved in two longitudinal studies of the career paths of teachers and principals in the Chicago Public School System. Her work has been funded by the Spencer Foundation, the American Education Research Association, and the Joyce Foundation. A former chemistry teacher, Reininger has also received an MA in education policy from the University of Virginia.

CEPA Faculty

Eric Bettinger

Eric Bettinger Eric Bettinger is an associate professor in the Stanford University School of Education. His research interests include economics of education; student success and completion in college; teacher characteristics and student success in college; effects of voucher programs on both academic and non-academic outcomes. Eric is also studying what factors determine student success in college. Eric's work aims to bring understanding of these cause-and-effect relationships in higher education. His most recent work focuses on the effects of FAFSA simplification on students' collegiate outcomes.

Martin Carnoy

Martin Carnoy Martin Carnoy ( is the Vida Jacks Professor of Education at Stanford University School of Education. Dr. Carnoy is a labor economist with a special interest in the relation between the economy and the educational system. To this end, he studies the US labor market, including the role in that relation of race, ethnicity, and gender, the US educational system, and systems in many other countries. He uses comparative analysis to understand how education influences productivity and economic growth, and, in turn, how and why educational systems change over time, and why some countries educational systems are marked by better student performance than others'. He has studied extensively the impact of vouchers and charter schools on educational quality, and has recently focused on differences in teacher preparation and teacher salaries across countries as well as larger issues of the impact of economic inequality on educational quality. Dr. Carnoy received his BA in Electrical Engineering from California Institute of Technology, MA and PhD in Economics from the University of Chicago.

Thomas Dee

Thomas S. Dee, Ph.D., is a Professor of Education at Stanford University and a research associate with the programs on education, children, and health at the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). Professor Dee is also a co-Editor of the Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. His research focuses largely on the use of quantitative methods (e.g., panel data techniques, instrumental variables, and random assignment) to inform contemporary policy debates.

Ben Domingue

Ben Domingue is an assistant professor in the Graduate School of Education at Stanford University. He has two areas of active research. The first focuses on statewide standardized test scores and their uses, particularly how test scores are used in statistical models that evaluate the effectiveness of teachers and schools. On a technical level, he also is interested in the extent to which test scores and the data from which they are drawn demonstrate certain desirable properties. The second area of research focuses on the integration of genetic data into social science research.

Thomas Ehrlich

Thomas Ehrlich Thomas Ehrlich is a Visiting Professor at the Stanford University School of Education. He has previously served as president of Indiana University, provost of the University of Pennsylvania, and dean of Stanford Law School. He was also the first president of the Legal Services Corporation in Washington, DC, and the first director of the International Development Cooperation Agency, reporting to President Carter. After his tenure at Indiana University, he was a Distinguished University Scholar at California State University and taught regularly at San Francisco State University. From 2000 to 2010 he was a Senior Scholar at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. He is author, co-author, or editor of 14 books including Preparing Undergraduates for Business: Liberal Learning for Professional Education (2011), which won the Ness Prize for the best book of the year on liberal education; Reconnecting Education and Foundations: Turning Good Intentions into Educational Capital (2007); Educating for Democracy: Preparing Undergraduates for Lives of Responsible Political Engagement (2007); and Civic Work, Civic Lessons: Two Generations Reflect on Public Service, with Ernestine Fu (2013). He has been a trustee of Bennett College, of Mills College, and of the University of Pennsylvania. He is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Law School and holds five honorary degrees. He is also member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.

Eric Hanushek

Eric Hanushek Eric Hanushek ( is the Paul and Jean Hanna Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University. He has been a leader in the development of economic analysis of educational issues, and his work on efficiency, resource usage, and economic outcomes of schools has frequently entered into the design of both national and international educational policy. His research spans such diverse areas as the impacts of teacher quality, high stakes accountability, and class size reduction on achievement and the role of cognitive skills in international growth and development. His pioneering analysis measuring teacher quality through student achievement forms the basis for current research into the value-added of teachers and schools. He is chairman of the Executive Committee for the Texas Schools Project at the University of Texas at Dallas, a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and a member of the Koret Task Force on K-12 Education. He currently serves as chair of the Board of Directors of the National Board for Education Sciences and is the area coordinator for Economics of Education of the CESifo Research Network. He is a Distinguished Graduate of the United States Air Force Academy and completed his Ph.D. in economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He served in the U.S. Air Force from 1965-1974. Website:

Ed Haertel

Ed Haertel Ed Haertel ( is an expert in the area of educational testing and assessment. He looks at ways in which teachers and policymakers use and interpret tests, including uses that go beyond the accurate measurement of ability and achievement. He is currently examining evidence of different responses by teachers in high-resource versus low-resource classrooms to the pressures of external accountability testing.    

Caroline Hoxby

Caroline Hoxby Caroline Hoxby ( is the Scott and Donya Bommer Professor of Economics at Stanford University. Hoxby is also the Director of the Economics of Education Program at the National Bureau of Economic Research. She is a Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution and the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research. A public and labor economist, she is one of the world's leading scholars of the economics of education. Hoxby is well known for her research on school choice, school finance, the market for college education, peer effects, university finance and financial aid. Her current projects include work on how education affects economic growth; globalization in higher education; and ideal financing for schools. Hoxby is the recipient of many honors including Global Leader of Tomorrow (World Economic Forum) and Sloan, Olin, Mellon, and Ford fellowships. Hoxby has served as a presidential appointee to the National Board of Education Sciences. She has a Ph.D. from MIT, studied at Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar, and obtained her BA from Harvard University.

Michael W. Kirst

Michael W. Kirst Michael W. Kirst is Professor Emeritus of Education and Business Administration at Stanford University. He has been on the Stanford faculty since 1969. In 2011, Kirst became the President of the California State Board Of Education for the second time. Professor Kirst was a member of the California State Board of Education (1975/1982) and its president from 1977 to 1981. Dr. Kirst received his Ph.D. in political economy and government from Harvard. Before joining the Stanford University faculty, Dr. Kirst held several positions with the federal government, including Staff Director of the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Manpower, Employment and Poverty, and Director of Program Planning for the Elementary and Secondary Education of the US Office of Education. His book From High School to College with Andrea Venezia was published by Jossey Bass in 2004, and Political Dynamics Of American Education in 2009.

Bill Koski

Bill Koski Bill Koski ( is the Eric & Nancy Wright Professor of Clinical Education and Professor of Law at the Stanford Law School where he directs the Youth and Education Law Clinic, an in-house legal clinic devoted to ensuring that disadvantaged children and communities receive excellent and equal educational opportunities. Koski is a 1993 graduate of the University of Michigan Law School and received a Ph.D. in Educational Policy Analysis at the Stanford School of Education in 2003. After a stint in private practice with Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe and starting a boutique litigation firm with three other lawyers, Koski joined the East Palo Alto Community Law Project in 1997 and has represented hundreds youth and families in race discrimination, student discipline, and disability rights matters. He has served as co-counsel in three recent complex class action matters, including Emma C. v. Eastin, a pathbreaking class-action lawsuit that seeks to systemically reform the special education delivery service in a Bay Area school district. As an educational researcher, Koski has published articles on educational equity and adequacy, the politics of judicial decision-making, and postsecondary remedial education, and has provided expert witness testimony in the Williams v. California school reform litigation.

Prashant Loyalka

Prashant Loyalka Prashant Loyalka is a Center Research Fellow at the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and a Faculty Member of the Rural Education Action Program at Stanford University. His research focuses on examining/addressing inequalities in the education of youth and on understanding/improving the quality of education received by youth in large developing economies, including China, Russia and India.

Paul Oyer

Paul Oyer Paul Oyer ( studies the economics of organizations and human resource practices. His recent work has looked at the use of broad-based stock option plans, how firms use non-cash benefits, and how firms respond to limits on their ability to displace workers. Oyer's current projects include studies of how labor market conditions affect their entire careers when MBAs and PhD economists leave school, how firms identify and recruit workers in high-skill and competitive labor markets (with a focus on the markets for software engineers and newly minted lawyers), and, of most importance to his colleagues, how universities price and allocate parking spaces.

David Plank

David Plank David Plank ( is the Executive Director of Policy Analysis for California Education (PACE). Before joining PACE, David was Professor at Michigan State University, where he founded and directed the Education Policy Center. He was previously on the faculties at the University of Pittsburgh and at the University of Texas at Dallas, where he taught courses and conducted research in the areas of educational finance and policy. Plank is the author or editor of six books, including the AERA Handbook on Educational Policy Research. He has published widely in a number of different fields, including economics of education, history of education, and educational policy. His current interests include the role of the state in education, and the relationship between academic research and public policy. In addition to his work in the United States, Plank has extensive international experience. He has served as a consultant to international organizations including the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the United States Agency for International Development, and the Ford Foundation, and also to governments in Africa and Latin America. He received his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1983.

Sean Reardon

Sean Reardon Sean Reardon is the endowed Professor of Poverty and Inequality in Education and is Professor (by courtesy) of Sociology at Stanford University. His research focuses on the causes, patterns, trends, and consequences of social and educational inequality, the effects of educational policy on educational and social inequality, and in applied statistical methods for educational research. In addition, he develops methods of measuring social and educational inequality (including the measurement of segregation and achievement gaps) and methods of causal inference in educational and social science research. He teaches graduate courses in applied statistical methods, with a particular emphasis on the application of experimental and quasi-experimental methods to the investigation of issues of educational policy and practice. Sean received his doctorate in education in 1997 from Harvard University. He is a member of the National Academy of Education, and has been a recipient of a William T. Grant Foundation Scholar Award, a Carnegie Scholar Award, and a National Academy of Education Postdoctoral Fellowship.

Rob Reich

Rob Reich Rob Reich ( Assistant Professor of Political Science, Ethics in Society, and, by courtesy, Education, at Stanford University. His main interests are in contemporary liberal theory, and he is working on two projects, the first on the ideals of equality and adequacy as applied to school reform, the second about topics in ethics, public policy, and philanthropy. He is the author of Bridging Liberalism and Multiculturalism in American Education (University of Chicago Press, 2002) and other articles on the intersection of political theory and educational theory. Rob is the recipient of the Walter J. Gores Award, Stanford University's highest award for teaching. He has also received fellowships from the Spencer Foundation and the Stanford Humanities Center. In 2004-05, he was a Laurance Rockefeller Visiting Fellow at the Center for Human Values at Princeton University. Before attending graduate school, Rob was a sixth grade teacher at Rusk Elementary School in Houston, Texas.

W. Richard (Dick) Scott

W. Richard (Dick) Scott W. Richard (Dick) Scott ( is a professor of sociology, emeritus, with courtesy appointments in the Schools of Business, Education, and Medicine. His major field is organizational studies and among the many types of organizations studied are educational, research, and healthcare organizations. His most recent empirical research project examined changes in the healthcare delivery systems in the San Francisco Bay area during the second half of the 20th century. Changes in five populations of healthcare organizations (eg, hospitals, HMOs, HHAs) were depicted and explained in terms of wider changes in the material resource (eg, demographic characteristics and financial resources) and institutional environments (eg, changes in regulatory, normative, and belief systems). He continues to focus on the general issues of institutional influences on organizational forms and functions, including changes in political regimes and policies.

Kathryn Shaw

Kathryn Shaw Kathryn Shaw ( is the Ernest C. Arbuckle Professor of Economics at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. Previously, Shaw was the Ford Distinguished Research Chair and Professor of Economics at the business school at Carnegie Mellon University. She completed her PhD in economics at Harvard University in 1981. Professor Shaw served as a Senate-confirmed Member of President Clinton's Council of Economic Advisers, 1999-2001, and is an editor of the Journal of Labor Economics. Shaw's most recent research focuses on managing talent in high performance organizations. She studies how firms attract and build star talent in the software industry and in a range of knowledge-intensive industries. More broadly, Professor Shaw studies how companies can achieve measurable rates of return from investing in human resource management practices that are aimed at improving the performance of workers or teams of workers. She is identified as a co-developer of the field of "insider econometrics," in which researchers use internal "inside" company data to study the performance gains from practices such as teamwork and incentive pay.

Mitchell L. Stevens

Mitchell L. Stevens ( is Associate Professor of Education and (by courtesy) Organizational Behavior and Sociology at Stanford. He studies the organization of US higher education, the quantification of academic performance, and alternative school forms. The author of prize-winning studies of home education and selective college admissions, he currently is writing a book about how US research universities organize research and teaching about the rest of the world. He serves as the third Director of the Scandinavian Consortium for Organizational Research, a cooperative institution that has brought more than 500 scholars to Stanford over a quarter century and catalyzes organizational scholarship worldwide.

Deborah Stipek

Deborah Stipek Deborah Stipek is Dean of the Stanford Graduate School of Education and Professor of Education and (by courtesy) Psychology at Stanford University. Her scholarship concerns instructional effects on children’s achievement motivation and early childhood education. She is particularly concerned about policies and practices that afford children of color and children living in poverty the educational advantages of their more affluent peers. Her current focus is on strategies to develop young children’s basic academic skills while supporting their social-emotional development and motivation. In addition to her scholarship, she was an SRCD Fellow, working in the office of Senator Bill Bradley; she served for five years on the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the National Academy of Sciences, and is a member of the National Academy of Education. Dr. Stipek served 10 of her 23 years at UCLA as Director of the Corinne Seeds University Elementary School and the Urban Education Studies Center. She joined the Stanford Graduate School of Education as Dean in January 2001, stepped down in 2011 and returned in 2014.