Social-motivational development in first grade


Deborah Stipek

Year of Publication: 
Contemporary Educational Psychology

Social-motivational changes during first grade were studied longitudinally on a population of 89 Caucasian middle- and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) children. Results revealed that children, on the average, had a more internal locus of control, were more optimistic, and scored higher on an effectance motivation measure at the end of first grade than at the beginning. Attitudes toward school and self-esteem did not change from the beginning to the end of first grade. Changes on some social-motivational dimensions appeared to be affected by children's SES and by their academic success in first grade.

APA Citation

Stipek, D. (1981). Social-motivational development in first grade. Contemporary Educational Psychology.