In this paper, we describe patterns of Hispanic students’ math skill development during elementary school using data from a nationally-representative sample of Hispanic students assessed in math skills from kindergarten through fifth grade. Several robust patterns are evident. First, Hispanic students enter kindergarten with average math skills significantly lower than those of native-born, non-Hispanic White students, and similar to those of native-born non-Hispanic Black students. Second, Hispanic-White math proficiency gaps narrow from the start of kindergarten through fifth grade, but do not disappear. Third, there is considerable variation in average math skills among Hispanic population subgroups, with recent immigrants and lower-SES groups (Mexican and Central American students particularly) exhibiting the lowest levels of math skill through elementary school. Fourth, a simple measure of family socioeconomic status accounts for most of the Hispanic-White gaps that remain by fifth grade. Fifth, Hispanic students with the least English exposure and proficiency in kindergarten have considerably lower math proficiency rates at the start of kindergarten than English-proficient Hispanic students and students from homes where English is spoken. However, students from non-English speaking homes and students who are not proficient in spoken English at the start of kindergarten also exhibit more rapid gains in math skills during elementary school than do English-proficient Hispanic students and students from homes where English is spoken.