The authors would like to acknowledge the support of LICOS, K.U. Leuven. We also thank Jade Chien, a supporter/advisor of the Rural Education Action Project, and her family. The project could not have been done without the collaboration of the Ningshan County, Shiquan County and Hanying County bureaus of education. We thank Jiang Jun, the former head of Education Bureau of Ningshan, for support during the project. The students from Northwest University of Xi’an, especially Fan Li and Huan Wang, carried out the survey work. We thank each and every one of them.