Does Shadow Education Help Students Prepare for College? Evidence from Russia

Author/s: 
Prashant Loyalka, Andrey Zakharov
Year of Publication: 
2016
Publication: 
International Journal of Educational Development
Volume/Issue: 
49
Pages: 
22-30

Given the lack of causal evidence from developing countries, we examine the impact of participating in shadow education (private tutoring or other fee-based academic activities outside of formal schooling) on high school student achievement. Specifically, we analyze a unique dataset from Russia using a cross-subject student fixed effects model. We find that shadow education only positively impacts the achievement of high-achieving (and not low-achieving) students. Shadow education also does not lead students to substitute time away from their studies. Instead, our findings suggest that low-achieving students participate in low-quality shadow education which, in turn, contributes to inequality in college access.

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APA Citation

Loyalka, P., & Zakharov, A. (2016). Does Shadow Education Help Students Prepare for College? Evidence from Russia. International Journal of Educational Development, 49, 22-30.